Madison is a city in and the county seat of Jefferson County, Indiana, United States, along the Ohio River. Its estimated population was 12,083 as of 2012. Over 55,000 people live within 15 miles of downtown Madison. Madison is the largest city along the Ohio River between Louisville, Kentucky and Cincinnati Ohio. Madison and Jefferson County lie just outside the northeastern edge of the Louisville/Jefferson County-Elizabethtown-Scottsburg, KY-IN Combined Statistical Area, an area with a population of 1,478,637.